What is a response element in DNA?

What is a response element in DNA?

What is a response element in DNA?

By definition, a “response element” is a portion of a gene which must be present in order for that gene to respond to some hormone or other stimulus. Response elements are binding sites for transcription factors. Certain transcription factors are activated by stimuli such as hormones or heat shock.

What does the GR receptor do?

The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a nuclear receptor that functions as a ligand-activated transcription factor mediating the diverse physiologic effects of glucocorticoids.

What is GR in the brain?

The glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a glucocorticoid-dependent transcription factor widely distributed throughout the brain and peripheral tissues, mediates the physiological effects of glucocorticoids.

What is a GRE glucocorticoid response element?

The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) [2] binds to specific DNA sequences – glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) – which may be positive or negative, either activating or repressing transcription, respectively (Fig. ​ 1).

What is an estrogen response element?

estrogen response element. bp. base pair(s). The estrogen receptor (ER)1 is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of estrogen-responsive genes by binding to a specific DNA sequence found in their regulatory regions. This sequence is called the estrogen response element (ERE).

Is Androgen a response element?

The androgen response element (ARE) is a palindromic, dihexameric motif present in promoters or enhancers of genes targeted by the androgen receptor (AR).

Is GR a transcription factor?

GR functions as a hormone-dependent transcription factor that regulates the expression of glucocorticoid-responsive genes, which probably represent 3-10% of the human genome and can be influenced by the ligand-activated GR directly or indirectly (7).

What is the difference between a glucocorticoid and a mineralocorticoid?

Abstract. Mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids are key steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex. These hormones are vital for life with mineralocorticoids regulating the water and electrolyte balance, whilst glucocorticoids control body homeostasis, stress and immune responses.

What controls the release of cortisol?

Your hypothalamus, a small area of your brain involved in hormonal regulation, and your pituitary gland, a tiny gland located below your brain, regulate the production of cortisol in your adrenal glands.

Where are GR receptors located?

Human GRa is expressed virtually in all organs and tissues, resides primarily in the cytoplasm, and represents the classic glucocorticoid receptor that functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor.

What do glucocorticoid response elements do?

Abstract. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) belongs to the steroid hormone receptor subclass of nuclear receptors and controls physiological processes through activation and repression of specific target genes.

Is glucocorticoid a hormone?

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones widely used for the treatment of inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.