How many countries have reported XDR-TB cases as of 2013?

How many countries have reported XDR-TB cases as of 2013?

How many countries have reported XDR-TB cases as of 2013?

To date, 100 countries worldwide have reported at least one case of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) (MDR-TB plus resistance to any fluoroquinolone and any second-line injectable drug) [11].

What is the MDR in MDR-TB?

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of tuberculosis (TB) infection caused by bacteria that are resistant to treatment with at least two of the most powerful first-line anti-TB medications (drugs), isoniazid and rifampin.

When did MDR-TB emerge?

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is caused by bacteria resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most effective first-line anti-TB drugs, originally developed and introduced in the 1950s and 1960s.

How many TB cases are MDR-TB?

Globally, it is estimated that nearly one in 30 new TB cases (3.5 percent) and one in five previously treated cases (20.5 percent) are MDR TB.

What is the symptoms of MDR-TB?

The general symptoms of TB disease include feelings of sickness or weakness, weight loss, fever, and night sweats. The symptoms of TB disease of the lungs may also include coughing, chest pain, and coughing up blood. Symptoms of TB disease in other parts of the body depend on the area affected.

Can MDR-TB be cured?

Only about half the people with MDR-TB around the world are successfully cured. TB treatment is lengthy and burdensome to patients and treatment providers alike. MDR-TB treatment can consist of more than 14,000 pills, plus daily injections for six months.

Who discovered MDR-TB?

History of World TB Day On March 24, 1882, Dr. Robert Koch announced the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria that causes tuberculosis (TB). During this time, TB killed one out of every seven people living in the United States and Europe.

Why does MDR-TB occur?

Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) is caused by an organism that is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, the two most potent TB drugs. These drugs are used to treat all persons with TB disease.

How many cases of TB are there in 2020?

A total of 7,163 TB cases were reported during 2020 (2.2 cases per 100,000 persons), 20% fewer than during 2019 (2.7 cases per 100,000 persons).

What are the side effects of MDR-TB?

All patients received standardized therapy for MDR-TB. The major adverse effects included neurologic side effects (depression, convulsions, consciousness, psychosis, suicide; 7.5%), hepatitis (5%), rash (1.3%), renal toxicity (3.8%), and auditory toxicity (14.5%).

When did TB start in India?

TB in India around 1500 BCE TB in India is an ancient disease. In Indian literature there are passages from around 1500 BCE in which consumption is mentioned, and the disease is attributed to excessive fatigue, worries, hunger, pregnancy and chest wounds.